採用三組異構、異時脈 Prime Core 與整合深度學習加速、 ISP 結合視覺加速器,為 5G 而生的高通 Snapdragon 855 正式亮相

2018.12.06 05:59AM
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作為在高通 Snapdragon 峰會的第二日壓軸、也幾乎可說是此次峰會的重點,高通正式公布新一代旗艦行動運算平台 Snapdragon 855 的資訊細節, Snapdragon 855  可說是高通第一款針對 5G 世代的旗艦平台,同時也將廣泛被使用在 2019 年上半年首批支援 5G 的智慧手機上。

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在一開場,並未直接切入 Snapdragon 855 平台特性,而是回顧通訊技術的發展,從過去的通訊世代變革,幾乎可歸論出每十年進入一個全新世代的規律, 1G 為行動通訊帶來類比通話, 2G 進入數位通話,而 3G 則正式為行動通訊帶來網路連接, 4G 則是提供行動寬頻, 5G 世代將進入萬物互聯。

整合 2Gbps 等級的 X24 LTE 數據機、可選擇 X50 LTE 數據機

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高通 Snapdragon 855 將在多項領域進行革新,首先從網路連接談起, Snapdragon 855 不僅具備 Gigabit 連接性能,更是超越 Gigabit 級的連接性能; Snapdragon 855 的 5G 雖仍需搭配 Snapdragon X50 5G 數據機,不過整合了可達 2 Gbps 等級的 LTE 24 基頻數據機。

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此外,搭配的 WiFi 為最新的 WiFi 6-Ready ,也就是先前的 WiFi 802.11 ax ,可提供 8x8 MIMO,此外還支援 802.11ay 的 mmWAVE 60GHz WiFi ,能達到 10 Gbps 等級的 WiFi 性能。

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同時高通也在基頻技術化繁為簡,把基頻數據機與射頻解碼整合到 Snapdragon X50 晶片,而將前端射頻放大與支援 mmWAVE 的天線整合到小型化 QTM052 模組內,使整體架構更為簡化,使合作夥伴更易於設計 5G 智慧手機。

Kyro CPU 導入全新 Prime Core 設計、支援 Vulkan 1.1 的 Adreno 與整合 Tensor 加速的 Hexagon

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此次 Snapdragon 855 在性能的表現有革命性的進化,也是高通在多核心繼 32 位元架構的 aSMP 、 64 位元世代的 big.LITTLE 之後導入第三種多核心處理器設計,此次的新技術稱為 Prime Core ,概念上可說是活用了 Arm DynamIQ 技術可在一個 Cluster 整合異構、異時脈的特性,提供全新的核心結構。

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Snapdrgon 855 所搭載的核心是基於 Arm Cortex-A76 的 Kyro 485 半客製化核心,所謂的 Prime Core 是在一個 Cluster 內具備一個 2.84GHz 超高時脈的 Prime Core ,搭配 3 個 2.42GHz 的性能核心與 4 個 1.8GHz 的節能核心,剛好符合 DynamIQ 的一個 Cluster 可具備不超過 4 個大核心的原則,同時藉由單一高時脈核心處理重度負載,這使得 Snapdragon 855 可較 Snapdragon 845 提升 45% CPU 性能。

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同時 Snapdragon 855 所搭配的 GPU 為 Adreno 640 ,除了性能較 Snapdragon 845 的 Adreno 630 提升 20% 以外,更是全球第一款支援 Vulkan 1.1 的行動 GPU ,另外為了提供穩定的執行性能, Adreno 640 還整合了負責管理電源的 MCU ,使得 Adreno 640 即便是在長時間中高負載運作也不會讓效能明顯下降。

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另外,過往被定義在 DSP 的 Hexagon 也在此次 Snapdragon 855 達到全新的進化, Snapdragon 855 所搭配的 Hexagon 690 不僅具備 DSP 特性,更首度導入高通獨自開發、支援主流機器學習技術的 Tensor 加速器,使得 Hexagon 690 可透過硬體加速的方式支援機器學習技術,同時也具備基於硬體的安全架構。

第四代 AIE 引擎性能提升 3 倍、強調異構運算仍優於獨立神經處理器

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高通在 Snapdragon 855 的 Hexagon 690 導入 Tensor 硬體加速架構,這也使得此次基於異構運算的第四代 Snapdragon AIE 人工智慧引擎性能再度提升,相較 Snapdragon 845 提升 3 倍的性能,也同時對比競品同為 7nm 製程的 Android 旗艦級平台的 AI 性能高出兩倍,達到 7TFLOPS ,同時也支援各式主流機器學習框架。

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不同於競爭對手多半將 AI 人工智慧交由專屬核心處理,高通仍認為透過異構方式能夠實現更全面的 AI 應用與體驗;除了此次在 Hexagon 690 加入 Tensor 硬體加速架構外,此次的 GPU 也將 FP16 與 FP32 的 ALU 增加 50& ,此外 Kryo 485 也支援全新的 FP32 與 INT8 指令集,使得進行異構 AIE 時的機器學習性能翻倍。高通也強調, AI 技術不光只是提供硬體,還要與業界緊密結合,高通的 AIE 廣泛的與業界的各類 AI 應用合作,建構完整的生態體系,為使用者帶來不僅止於影像應用的 AI 體驗。

全新的機器視覺 ISP 與支援 HEIF 硬體編解碼為內容創作帶來更多創意

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近年多相機技術已經在智慧手機相當盛行,而過往高通透過將深度資訊等視覺相關資料交由 AIE 處理,當然這樣並沒有太大的問題,不過高通為了讓照片與影片等數位影像有更大的進展,高通此次將機器視覺處理交由 Spectra ISP , Snapdragon 855 所搭載的 Spectra 380 CV-ISP 也成為業界首款整合機器視覺處理的 ISP 。

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由於將過往由 AIE 負責處理的深度資訊、前景與背景分離等轉移到 Spectra 380 CV-ISP ,並以硬體加速方式進行處理,不僅可達到即時的前景、背景分離、背景取代、景深虛化與處理更為省電,同時還能讓 AIE 能夠進行更豐富的影像處理,像是史主體靜止、背景移動等影片效果。

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此外, Snapdragon 855 還原生硬體支援 HEIF 格式,雖然高通不是第一家宣布支援 HEIF 格式的廠商,不過多半都僅將 HEIF 視為節省檔案大小的格式,但高通認為 HEIF 可記錄比 JPEG 更豐富的資訊,例如景深、 RAW 等,甚至在多個不同焦段相機的手機可在單個 HEIF 檔案紀錄一次拍攝的三個焦段的照片資訊。

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在影片方面, Snapdragon 855 具備第二代 4K HDR 影像拍攝,同時也是業界第一款支援 HDR10+ 編解碼的行動運算平台,可呈現一億色的色彩表現,並且在記錄 8K HDR 影像也更為節能。

遊戲、影音與沉浸體驗更強勁

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最後高通介紹的 Snapdragon 855 特性是聚焦在娛樂方面,包括遊戲、影音與沉浸體驗;在遊戲部分,高通表示在行動遊戲越來越成熟的當今,市場也出現多款基於 Snapdragon 845 的電競手機,而高通也在 Snapdragon 855 提出 Elite Gaming 的概念。

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Snapdragon 855 所具備的 Adreno 640 不僅提升了基礎性能,同時也是業界第一款支援 Vulkan 1.1 API 的行動 GPU ,相較業界廣泛使用的 OpenGL ES ,透過 Vulkan 1.1 API 可節能 20% ,也有助於遊戲體驗更為順暢。

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另外 Snapdragon 855 還支援 PBR 物理運算,能夠在遊戲中帶來更逼真的物理效果,同時還可為遊戲帶來原生的 HDR10+ 色彩表現,並結合高通與業界夥伴打造的逼真物理材質與光影效果,為行動遊戲帶來電影級的視覺表現,並結合高通 Aqustic 音訊技術與 aptX 無線音訊等帶來更逼真的聽覺效果。

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在影音娛樂方面, Snapdragon 855 不僅可提供 4K HDR 的影像表現,同時支援 5G 網路可提供更高品質的串流內容,同時 Snapdragon 855 還可提供包括 DR10+ , Dolby Vision 、 120fps 超順暢影像、 8K 360 XR 影片等內容播放。

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在音訊方面,除了支援先進格式與智慧擴大機的 Qualcomm Aqstic 音訊技術外,此次 Snapdragon 855 還是第一款支援高通新一代藍牙音訊技術 aptX Adaptive 與 TrueWireless Stereo Plue ( TWS Plus )真無線傳輸的平台,在有線與無線音訊皆帶來高品質、低延遲的體驗。

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至於在沉浸體驗方面, Snapdragon 855 藉由全新的影像處理技術與 AI 技術,能夠呈現更高品質的 XR 體驗,無論是作為行動裝置,或是獨立的 XR 頭戴裝置等,再加上搭配高頻寬、低延遲的 5G ,皆可實現虛實結合的沉浸體驗。

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